Picture courtesy homepage Trinity College Cambridge UK
Superbursts emanate from binary systems in which a neutron star orbits a companion star. When the two stars get close enough together, a steady rain of material is sucked away from the companion star onto the surface of the neutron star.
Because a neutron star is so dense - on Earth, one teaspoonful would weigh a billion tons - the companion star material that reaches the neutron star surface is strongly compressed and heated. Eventually nuclear reactions trigger an explosion that burns through the surface layer of accumulated material, resulting in a burst of X-rays clearly detectable by ground- and space-based instruments.
X-ray bursts repeat every few hours to days, along the way fusing hydrogen and helium into a mixture of elements that is itself potentially reactive. In contrast, superbursts occur when, after many months, the accumulated "ashes" produced in the X-ray bursts ignite in a different, even more dramatic nuclear explosion.
The result is an outpouring of X-rays some 1,000 times as energetic as a standard X-ray burst. One superburst, which lasts only on the order of a few hours, releases as much energy as the sun will radiate in a decade.
Neutron star accreting matter from a red giant star. The red giant (on the upper right) is expanding and dumping material onto the neutron star. This material forms a disk and then finally falls to the neutron star surface. (Credit: Tony Piro, U.C. Berkeley)
A new theoretical thermometer built from heavy-duty mathematics and computer code suggests that the surfaces of certain neutron stars run significantly hotter than previously expected. Hot enough, in fact, to at least partially answer an open question in astrophysics - how to explain the observed frequency of ultra -violent explosions known as superbursts that sometimes ignite on such stars' surfaces?
"This is the first model that goes into some reasonable detail about the nuclear physics that occur in the crusts of accreting neutron stars," said Hendrik Schatz, NSCL professor and co-author of a paper that will be published in The Astrophysical Journal in June. One of Schatz's co-authors, NSCL assistant professor Ed Brown, presented the results April 17 at a meeting of the American Physical Society in Jacksonville, Fla.
According to observational data, superbursts occur roughly annually and scientists still aren't altogether sure why - "It's still an open question as to how nature ignites superbursts" - said Brown.
Astrophysical Journal paper, "Heating in the Accreted Neutron Star Ocean: Implications for Superburst Ignition"
Was Einstein Right?
Gravity Probe B Results from Centauri Dreams
Stephen Hawking building named by HRH @ Cambridge University